Modes of Supervision Delivery

There are four modes of supervision delivery.

1. Individual
As the name implies, individual supervision is conducted on a one-on-one basis between the supervisor and supervisee. Typically, the supervisee is prepared to discuss counseling sessions that occurred. Discussion centers on the sessions as a context for supervisee learning and development.

2. Dyadic
Dyadic supervision is generally conducted in the same way as individual supervision, but the supervisor works with two supervisees at the same time.

3. Group
In group supervision, a designated supervisor works with a group of counselors. The unique aspect of group supervision is that members are not only influenced by the supervisor, but they also are influenced by (and influence) the others in the group. Interventions are incorporated to capitalize on, and account for, this interrelatedness. Practicum and Internship experiences in training typically incorporate group supervision as their “classroom” experience.

4. Live
Live supervision occurs as the supervisee is acting as counselor. Supervisors interact with the supervisee “in the moment” and therefore directly affect the counseling process.

Supervision Interventions

There are a variety of supervision interventions that can be incorporated into the supervision process. Borders and Leddick (1987) listed six reasons for choosing different supervision methods: “the supervisee’s learning goals, the supervisee’s experience level and developmental issues, the supervisee’s learning style, the supervisor’s goals for the supervisee, the supervisor’s theoretical orientation, and the supervisor’s own learning goals for the supervisory experience” (p. 28).
Each mode of supervision lends itself to a variety of interventions. Some of the more popular interventions will be presented. A thorough discussion of supervision interventions can be found in Bernard and Goodyear (1998).